The large flow of EU funds received by Poland after 2007 allowed for significant development in terms of infrastructure, especially road infrastructure. Over these years a number of large and important investments, strategic from the point of view of future economic development, were implemented, such as building a network of motorways or expressways, which improve the quality of life of residents. Most of these investments were carried out with the support from the Cohesion Fund, mainly through the Operational Programme "Infrastructure and Environment 2007-2013".
The new perspective for the years 2014 - 2020 offers the ability to finance investments in transport infrastructure, both from the record-breaking national program and regional funds. The budget of the Operational Programme "Infrastructure and Environment 2014-2020" (OPIE) is more than EUR 27.4 billion from the European funds, i.e. approx. PLN 115 billion. Most of the funds will be allocated to transport projects, i.e. roads, railways, urban, air and sea transport. The main recipients of aid will be public entities, including local authorities, the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways and PKP PLK S.A.
Most of the funds were allocated for the development of roads, railroads and intermodal transport. Funding for this type of project can be obtained from the following measures:
Development of the TEN-T road network and multimodal transport
- development of the road infrastructure in the TEN-T network;
- improving road safety;
- improving traffic safety;
- intermodal, maritime and inland waterways transport.
Road infrastructure for cities
- improving accessibility of cities and the capacity of the road infrastructure (development of road infrastructure in cities and roads leading out of cities, the construction of ring roads).
Development of railway transport in Poland
- development of railways in TEN-T, outside the TEN-T and urban railways.
Development of low-emission public transport in cities
- infrastructure and rolling stock for public transport in cities and their functional areas.
Road projects are to contribute to the creation of a coherent, unified TEN-T transport network covering the entire country. The Programme will include projects which will result in the creation of a coherent network of high-throughput roads, allowing connecting all provincial cities to Warsaw by highways. EU funds under the OPIE, are focused on the construction of expressways. The construction of motorways will be completed with domestic funds, while roads of categories lower than national will be financed from regional operational programs.
Besides investments relating to construction, redevelopment or expansion of expressways, bypasses of cities are to be constructed. In order to improve road traffic management methods, particularly on roads with heavy traffic, ITS systems will be used which will contribute not only to improving traffic conditions, but thanks to the transmitted information about the state of traffic, will also improve its safety. In total, EUR 19.86 billion was allocated for all these measures!
The catalogue of costs eligible for subsidy varies depending on the types of projects, but in principle includes any capital expenditure necessary for the implementation of the project, such as:
- project preparation costs (e.g. feasibility study, environmental impact report, technical documentation, financial and economic analyses, studies and expert opinions);
- purchase of real estate necessary for the implementation of the project;
- the cost of acquisition of fixed assets and intangible assets;
- construction and civil engineering, installation, supervision over the implementation of investments;
- tests and expert opinions, costs of financial services and security;
- investment in auxiliary infrastructure.
The level of support for public entities usually reaches up to 80-85% of the total investment!